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Breaking the Barriers: Sputnik I

Popular emotional responses to the launch of Sputnik I in America

Published onMay 06, 2021
Breaking the Barriers: Sputnik I

https://pixels.com/featured/sputnik-1-satellite-erik-simonsen.html

Sputnik I in orbit

On October 4,1957, the Soviet Union successfully launched mankind’s first Earth-orbiting satellite. This satellite was suitably named Sputnik I, Russian for “fellow traveler”[1]. Although Sputnik I was simply an aluminum ball with four antennas, capable of transmitting data back to the Earth, it was the forerunner of the Space Age as we know it today. The human race had finally broken the barrier that stood between them and the stars! However, one barrier still remained on Earth. This is the barrier between two nations. Countless newspapers, flyers, and conversations in America all implied that its citizens didn’t see Sputnik I as a significant scientific discovery; Americans saw it as a threat from the Soviet Union towards their nation.

The launch of Sputnik I immediately jump started the ‘Sputnik Panic,’ a time of madness in America. The hysteria that followed the launch of Sputnik I makes sense given the time period and past tensions between the two countries. The United States and the Soviet Union were on bad terms because of the infamous Cold War crisis. The Soviet Union also played a role as an economic competitor to the US during the early 1950s [2] This suggests that the launch of Sputnik I was simply a jab in America’s direction in regard to who was the stronger of the two, or the most developed country in the area of space science.

https://www.hanging-chairs.net/indoor-hanging-chair/hanging-bubble-chair/celebrating-50th-anniversary/attachment/sputnik-and-sphere-looping-world-1957-newspaper/

A newspaper addressing the launch of Sputnik I

The panic within the nation was evident, as official Washington addressed the issue. About a month after the launch of Sputnik I, President Eisenhower addressed the importance of science in national security. Eisenhower made it obvious that he saw this satellite as a demonstration of Russia's superiority, as they were ahead in terms of missile and satellite technology that had the potential to damage the US immensely. He said, “This is because no defensive system today can possibly be air-tight in preventing all break-throughs of planes and weapons”[3].

This alarmed the American people. The general public feared what the Soviet Union, an enemy country, was capable of doing. Since the majority of people knew little to nothing about space exploration at this time, they feared what the motive behind the launch of Sputnik I was [4]. Conversation buzzed about this topic, and newspapers covered it. In the 1957 Little Rock newspaper article titled “U.S Listens, Hears Beeps And a Threat” [5], it was mentioned how the US was observing Sputnik I, looking for answers pertaining to both space flight and the motive behind why Russia sent it up. It also addressed the eerie beeping noises from Sputnik that could be heard over the radio.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RWAz_1Ck01U

Actual recording of Sputnik I ‘beeping noises’ detectable over radio frequencies.


The strong emotions from America proved to have a positive impact on the nation. It pushed America to change for the better and embrace science on a larger scale all in the name of being better than the Soviet Union.

The facts clearly indicate that the launch of Sputnik I was the beginning of a new, positive era. Not only was it a groundbreaking step forwards for humanity itself, but it also shaped the world into what it is today. As we continue our lives in a world enhanced by technology that is capable of exploring space, we should remember the beginning of it all. We should recall how there are no barriers in space—no country borders or wars. At the end of the day, the American people who witnessed the launch of Sputnik I became a perpetual part of history, regardless of their reaction to it or the way their world improved afterwards.

https://www.popularmechanics.com/space/satellites/news/a28496/how-sputnik-worked/

A video display of Sputnik I and its parts.


[1] “Sputnik Definition and Meaning: Collins English Dictionary,” 2021. https://www.collinsdictionary.com/us/dictionary/english/sputnik. 

[2] Yanek Mieczkowski, “What Was the Sputnik ‘Panic’?,” in Eisenhower’s Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige (Cornell University Press, 2013), 15, https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctt1xx4xh.5.

[3] Dwight D. Eisenhower, “Radio and Television Address to the American People on Science in National Security” (The American Presidency Project, November 7, 1957), Year 1957, Spoken Addresses and Remarks, https://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/documents/radio-and-television-address-the-american-people-science-national-security.

[4] Yanek Mieczkowski, “What Was the Sputnik ‘Panic’?,” in Eisenhower’s Sputnik Moment: The Race for Space and World Prestige (Cornell University Press, 2013), 21, https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctt1xx4xh.5.

[5] “U.S Listens, Hears Beeps And a Threat,” Arkansas Gazette, October 8, 1957, Four Star edition, Readex:America’s Historical Newspapers.



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